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Human future or energy for interstellar travel

2019-3-25 17:20| 发布者: 左二爷| 查看: 307| 评论: 0|来自: 成都夜网www.scshua114.com

摘要: Beijing time, March 25, according to foreign media reports, an Ivy League astronomer claims that humans may be able to obtain energy from a two-black hole system through a new method called Halo Drive ...
Beijing time, March 25, according to foreign media reports, an Ivy League astronomer claims that humans may be able to obtain energy from a two-black hole system through a new method called Halo Drive, thus achieving fuel-free interstellar travel.

David Kipping, an astronomer from Columbia University, said that in theory aliens might have used the technology without our knowledge. The principle of the halo driver driving the spacecraft is mainly to use the "gravitational mirror" to absorb the energy of the black hole. Gravitational mirror refers to a region of a black hole that, after swallowing up matter, ejects matter in the same direction.

"Searching for intelligent life in the universe is often guided by the possible activities of imaginary advanced civilizations and the related technical characteristics that may arise from them," David Kipping wrote in a paper published on the preprint journal website arXiv on February 28. "In these directions, this study considers how an advanced civilization can use the concept of light sail to achieve relativistic heights. Possibility of effective advancement."

Scientists have observed that when photons enter the gravitational mirror region and are subsequently ejected back, they not only gain speed from the journey, but also retain some kinetic energy. Using these returned photons, known as boomerang photons, interstellar travelers can collect energy from them at a speed of 133% higher than that of black holes, says David Kipping.

This method of obtaining energy from black holes can not only avoid being too close to dangerous gravitational space, but also make it extremely difficult for spacecraft to be detected. For a long time, astronomers have regarded black holes as gravitational slingshots that can help push objects into distant space.

In the gravitational slingshot effect, a celestial body (such as a planet or satellite) can "throw" a spacecraft out and accelerate it. In 1963, a famous physicist, Freeman Dyson, proposed that any spacecraft of any size could achieve relativistic speed by using the gravitational slingshot effect of pairs of compact celestial bodies (such as white dwarfs or neutron stars). The speed of light was remarkably close to the speed of light. (Dayson's most famous idea was the giant spherical structure known as the "Dayson sphere". Advanced civilization would make the whole world through the Dayson sphere. Stars are included, capturing most of their energy.

However, these pairs of declining stars have extreme gravitational attraction and harmful radiation, and their gravitational slingshot effect may damage spacecraft. On the contrary, David Kipping points out that gravity may help spacecraft by increasing the energy of laser beams directed towards the edge of black holes. Black holes have a strong gravitational field, which can distort the path of photons so that they do not fall into the black hole.

In 1963, physicist Mark Stuckey proposed that a black hole could theoretically act as a "gravitational mirror", that is, the gravitational force of a black hole could bounce photons back to the light source. David Kipping calculates that if a black hole moves toward the source of photons, the dart photons can carry back part of the black hole's energy. The faster the black hole moves, the more energy the halo driver gets from it. Therefore, David Kipping believes that the two black holes that spiral each other at high speeds before merging should be utilized.

"A civilization can use black holes as Galaxy hubs, but these hubs will be difficult to detect remotely unless there is an increase in the merger rate of double black holes or a higher eccentricity of double black holes," said David Kipping. Therefore, if a civilization has the ability to approach a black hole sufficiently, it can theoretically make interstellar travel using the halo driver method without our knowledge. Astronomers may be able to look for signs that extraterrestrial life uses halo drives by observing whether the merger of two black holes occurs more frequently.

David Kipping's research is mainly based on the relativistic speed of pairs of black holes orbiting each other. Although there are an estimated 10 million pairs of double black holes in the Milky Way, David Kipping points out that only a few double black holes can circle each other at relativistic speeds for a long time, because most double black holes will merge quickly. However, he believes that some isolated rotating black holes can also help the ring drive achieve relativistic speed, "and we already know that many supermassive black holes rotate at relativistic speed."

One of the major drawbacks of halo drives is that "you have to go to the nearest black hole," says David Kipping. "It's like paying a one-time toll on a highway. You have to spend some energy to get to the nearest entrance, but then you can go as far as you want.

Halo drivers work only at very close distances to black holes, about 5 to 50 times the diameter of black holes. "That's why you have to be very close to a black hole first, and that's why you can't easily cross light-years," says David Kipping. "We still need to find some way to get to the neighboring stars before we can get into the interstellar'highway system'."

David Kipping says another major advantage of halo drives over other hypothetical ways of interstellar travel is that they can dramatically reduce demand for fuel sources. Other theoretical ways of interstellar travel require the spacecraft to accelerate to the so-called relativistic speed, but this requires a lot of fuel, which in turn requires the thruster to be more powerful because of its mass. In contrast, the halo driver only needs to collect photons from the black hole.

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